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Manuel de la Fuente
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At the social and cultural level it can be mentioned that the excess and poor quality of the exterior lighting have important consequences and that they should not be ignored; as the modification (disappearance) of the nocturnal natural landscape. The darkness of the night must be preserved according to the universal declaration of the rights of future generations of UNESCO: "People of future generations have the right to an undamaged, undamaged land, including the right to a pure sky". More recently in the "Declaration on the Defense of the Night Sky and the Right to the Light of the Stars," La Palma, April 20, 2007, states: "The right to a clear night sky and the ability to observe the sky it should be considered as a right comparable to the rest of environmental, social and cultural rights, taking into account its impact on the development of peoples and on the conservation of biodiversity ".
Another aspect is the so-called "intrusive light", that is, the unwanted light from the outside that enters our homes due to the use of inadequate lighting or by posters or billboards. The effects of this intrusion on privacy have important consequences of a psychological nature. The current conditions of light pollution have a great impact on astrophysical research programs and on the planning of the astronomical observatories' sites.
Since the promulgation of the "Declaration on the Defense of the Night Sky and the Right to Light of the Stars" in 2007 in all the regulations that have been created at the level of municipalities in European, Asian and American countries, for To regulate the exterior lighting of public spaces, a chapter referring to light pollution has been incorporated. These regulations have the following areas of action:
Urban lighting: (urban centers of cities): cities or large or very large population centers. Includes the lighting of streets and roads for vehicles, pedestrians, squares, parks, housing developments located in the urban core, etc.
Lighting of urban centers of towns: nuclei of medium or low settlement. These spaces generate problems and situations similar to the previous section but of smaller scale.
Lighting residential areas: this is urbanizations and non-urban population centers. Although by affiliation they will be inserted in some main municipality, their characteristics (distance of urban nuclei
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Dark Sky Lighting Fixtures